Accepted Papers

ECCV 2014 Results (16 Jun, 2014)

Papers submitted: 1444

Accepted Papers

Title
Primary Subject Area ID
3D computer vision 93 UPnP: An optimal O(n) solution to the absolute pose problem with universal applicability
128 Video Registration to SfM Models
168 Image-based 4-d Modeling Using 3-d Change Detection
173 Pipe-Run Extraction and Reconstruction from Point Clouds
250 A Scalable Solution to the Generalized Pose and Scale Problem
297 Accurate intrinsic calibration of depth camera with cuboids
366 Total Moving Face Reconstruction
397 Unsupervised Dense Object Discovery, Detection, Tracking and Reconstruction
425 3D Interest Point Detection via Discriminative Learning
534 Match Selection and Refinement for Highly Accurate Two-View Structure from Motion
536 Globally Optimal Inlier Set Maximization With Unknown Rotation and Focal Length
570 Robust Global Translations with 1DSfM
582 Joint Object Class Sequencing and Trajectory Triangulation (JOST)
590 Scene Chronology
667 Know Your Limits: Accuracy of Long Range Stereoscopic Object Measurements in Practice
677 Efficiently Estimating the Absolute Camera Pose by Guessing Focal Length Values
691 A Pot of Gold: Rainbows as a Calibration Cue
737 Joint Semantic Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction from Monocular Video
753 Efficient Joint Segmentation, Occlusion Labeling, Stereo and Flow Estimation
757 Unfolding an Indoor Origami World
841 Shape from Light Field meets Robust PCA
884 Topology and Connectivity Preserving Constraints for Spatio-temporal Multi-View 3D Reconstruction
885 Correcting for Duplicate Scene Structure in Sparse 3D Reconstruction
971 Let There Be Color! – Large-Scale Texturing of 3D Reconstructions
1025 Soft Cost Aggregation with Multi-Resolution Fusion
1028 Nonrigid Surface Registration and Completion from RGBD Images
1029 Large-Scale Direct Monocular SLAM
1042 The 3D jigsaw puzzle: mapping large indoor spaces
1117 Multi-Body Depth-Map Fusion with Non-Intersection Constraints
1126 A New Variational Framework for Multiview Surface Reconstruction
1127 Optimal Essential Matrix Estimation in the Presence of Outliers
1257 Robust Bundle Adjustment Revisited
1288 3D Reconstruction of Dynamic Textures in Crowd Sourced Data
1303 As-Rigid-As-Possible Stereo under Second Order Smoothness Priors
1335 Video Pop-up: Monocular 3D Reconstruction of Dynamic Scenes
1346 Physically Grounded Spatio-Temporal Object Affordances
1390 ROCHADE: Robust Checkerboard Advanced Detection for Camera Calibration
1412 Statistical pose averaging with non-isotropic and incomplete relative measurements
1443 Automatic Single-View Calibration and Rectification from Parallel Planar Curves
1492 Pose Locality Constrained Representation for 3D Human Pose Reconstruction
1556 Piecewise-Planar StereoScan: Structure and Motion from Plane Primitives
1616 Synchronization of two independently moving cameras without feature correspondences
1617 Schwarp: a Locally Projective Image Warp Based on 2D Schwarzian Derivatives
Computational photography, sensing and display 87 Depth-of-Field Analysis and Coded Aperture Imaging on XSlit Cameras
269 SRA: Fast Removal of General Multipath for ToF Sensors
330 Photo Uncrop
390 Passive Tomography of Turbulence Strength
598 Coplanar Common Points in Non-Centric Cameras
680 Improved Motion Invariant Deblurring through Motion Estimation
685 Consistent Matting for Light Field Image
721 Solving Square Jigsaw Puzzles with Loop Constraints
788 Multi-Focus Structured Light for Recovering Scene Shape and Global Illumination
798 Programmable Automotive Headlights
856 Blind deblurring using internal patch recurrence
888 All-In-Focus Synthetic Aperture Imaging
963 Sub-Pixel Layout for Super-Resolution with Images in an Octic Group
1089 A Non-local Method for Robust Noisy Inpainting
1235 Geometric Calibration of Micro-Lens-Based Light-Field Cameras
1550 Refraction Wiggles for Measuring Fluid Depth and Velocity from Video
Face and gesture 37 Hierarchical Temporal Graphical Model for Head Pose Estimation in Real-World Videos
98 Spatio-temporal Matching for Human Detection in Video
116 Collaborative Facial Landmark Localization for Transferring Annotations Across Datasets
206 Feature Disentangling Machine – A Novel Approach of Feature Selection and Disentangling in Facial Expression Analysis
279 Real-Time Exemplar-Based Face Sketch Synthesis
317 Domain-adaptive Discriminative One-shot Learning of Gestures
434 Optimizing Facial Landmark Detection with Related Tasks
476 Consensus of Regression for Occlusion-Robust Facial Feature Localization
604 Joint Cascade Face Detection and Alignment
693 Distance estimation of an unknown person from a single portrait
1043 Reverse Training: An efficient Approach for Image Set Classification
1080 Multilinear Wavelets: A Statistical Shape Space for Human Faces
1125 Cross-Age Reference Coding for Age-Invariant Face Recognition and Retrieval
1140 Spatio-temporal Event Classification using Time-series Kernel based Structured Sparsity
1203 Person Re-Identification using Kernel-based Metric Learning Methods
1231 Simultaneous Feature and Dictionary Learning for Image Set Based Face Recognition
1253 Learning the Face Prior for Bayesian Face Recognition
1414 Coarse-to-Fine Auto-encoder Networks (CFAN) for Real-time Face Alignment
1417 Weighted Block-Sparse Low Rank Representation for Face Clustering in Videos
1601 Joint Unsupervised Face Alignment and Behaviour Analysis
1615 Read My Lips: Continuous Signer Independent Weakly Supervised Viseme Recognition
Low-level vision and image processing 15 Good Image Priors for Non-blind Deconvolution: Generic vs Specific
63 Scale-Aware Rolling Guidance Filter
72 A Contrast Enhancement Framework with JPEG Artifacts Suppression
109 Radial Bright Channel Prior for Single Image Vignetting Correction
187 RGBD Salient Object Detection: A Benchmark and Algorithms
368 Deblurring Face Images with Exemplars
383 Image Deconvolution Ringing Artifact Detection and Removal via PSF Frequency Analysis
392 Saliency in crowd
408 Discriminative Indexing for Probabilistic Image Patch Priors
520 Inverse Kernels for Fast Spatial Deconvolution
532 Spatio-Chromatic Opponent Features
579 Crisp Boundary Detection Using Pointwise Mutual Information
595 Hybrid Image Deblurring by Fusing Edge and Power Spectrum Information
601 Sparse Spatio-spectral Representation for Hyperspectral Image Super-Resolution
651 Learning a Sparse Rectifier Network for Image Super-Resolution
729 Real-Time Minimization of the Piecewise Smooth Mumford-Shah Functional
754 Comparing Salient Object Detection Results without Ground Truth
828 Saliency Detection with Flash and No-flash Image Pairs
874 Tubular structure filtering by ranking orientation responses of path operators
922 Modeling Perceptual Color Differences by Local Metric Learning
931 Material Classification based on Training Data Synthesized Using a BTF Database
1009 Spectral Edge Image Fusion: Theory and Applications
1048 Affine Subspace Representation for Feature Description
1134 Modeling Video Dynamics with Deep Dynencoder
1155 Webpage Saliency
1194 An Active Patch Model for Real World Texture and Appearance Classification
1239 A MAP-estimation Framework for Blind Deblurring Using High-level Edge Priors
1279 Efficient Color Constancy with Local Surface Reflectance Statistics
1298 Deep Network Cascade for Image Super-resolution
1568 Alpha Matting of Motion-Blurred Objects in Bracket Sequence Images
Medical and biological image analysis 1068 Metric-Based Pairwise and Multiple Image Registration
1491 Canonical Correlation Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds and its Applications
1561 Optimization-Based Artifact Correction for Electron Microscopy Image Stacks
Motion and tracking 44 Graduated Consistency-Regularized Optimization for Multi-Graph Matching
129 A Generative Model for the Joint Registration of Multiple Point Sets
133 Tracking using Multilevel Quantizations
193 Multispectral Image Dense Matching
213 Monocular Multiview Object Tracking with 3D Aspect Parts
220 Real-time gyroscope-based video stabilization for mobile devices
270 Crowd Tracking with Dynamic Evolution of Group Structures
435 Appearances can be deceiving: Learning visual tracking from few trajectory annotations
443 Dejavu: Motion Prediction in Static Images
456 A Superior Tracking Approach: Building a strong Tracker through Fusion
478 Using Isometry to Quickly Detect False 3D-2D Point Correspondences
492 View-Consistent 3D Scene Flow Estimation over Multiple Frames
497 Separable Spatiotemporal Priors for Convex Reconstruction of Time-Varying 3D Point Clouds
513 Fast Visual Tracking via Dense Spatio-Temporal Context Learning
545 Description-Discrimination Collaborative Tracking
554 Modeling Blurred Video with Layers
569 Transfer Learning Based Visual Tracking with Gaussian Process Regression
576 Hybrid Stochastic / Deterministic Optimization for Tracking Sports Players and Pedestrians
634 Robust Visual Tracking with Double Bounding Box Model
660 Non-Local Total Generalized Variation for Optical Flow Estimation
835 Bilateral Functions for Global Motion Modeling
836 Visual Tracking by Sampling Tree-Structured Graphical Models
838 Online Graph-Based Tracking
887 Generalized Background Subtraction using Superpixels with Label Integrated Motion Estimation
948 MEEM: Robust Tracking via Multiple Experts using Entropy Minimization
949 What Do I See? Modeling Human Visual Perception for Multi-person Tracking
1051 Robust Motion Segmentation with Unknown Correspondences
1114 Consistent Re-identification in a Camera Network
1135 Hand Waving Away Scale
1137 Extended Lucas-Kanade Tracking
1210 Dense Semi-Rigid Scene Flow Estimation from RGBD images
1211 Online, Real-Time Tracking using a Category-to-Individual Detector
1212 Learning Brightness Transfer Functions for the Joint Recovery of Illumination Changes and Optical Flow
1244 Tractable and Reliable Registration of 2D Point Sets
1267 On Mean Pose and Variability of 3D Deformable Models
1270 Change Detection in the Presence of Motion Blur and Rolling Shutter Effect
1309 Highly Overparameterized Optical Flow Using PatchMatch Belief Propagation
1359 Local Estimation of High Velocity Optical Flow 000 001 with Correlation Image Sensor
1472 Occlusing and Motion Reasoning for Long-term Tracking
1506 OpenDR: An Approximate Differentiable Renderer
1543 See You Downtown: Mobile 6-DOF Localization in the Large
1557 An Analysis of Errors in Graph-based Keypoint Matching and Proposed Solutions
1575 Tracking Interacting Objects Optimally Using Integer Programming
1606 Optical Flow Estimation with Channel Constancy
Optimization methods 46 Rank Minimization with Structured Data Patterns
52 Efficient Image and Video Co-localization with Frank-Wolfe Algorithm
260 Robust Compressed Sensing and Sparse Coding with the Difference Map
740 Spectral Clustering with a Convex Regularizer on Millions of Images
793 Incoherent dictionary learning algorithm for sparse coding with proved convergence
1079 Convexity Shape Prior for Segmentation
1166 Co-Sparse Textural Similarity for Interactive Segmentation
1198 Riemannian Sparse Coding of Positive Definite Matrices
1379 Pseudo-Bound Optimization for Binary Energies
1383 Non-parametric higher-order random fields for semantic segmentation
1521 Duality and the Continuous Graphical Model
Performance evaluation and datasets 373 Generating High Quality Seeds For Automatic Dataset Construction
529 VCDB: A Large-Scale Database for Partial Copy Detection in Videos
1047 Single-Image Super-Resolution: A Benchmark
Physics-based vision and Shape-from-X 69 Intrinsic Video
124 Spatially Varying Dirichlet Process Mixture Model for Intrinsic Image Decomposition
151 Training-Based Spectral Reconstruction from a Single RGB Image
278 Robust and Accurate Non-Parametric Estimation of Reflectance using Basis Decomposition and Correction Functions
506 Interreflection Removal Using Fluorescence
525 Recovering Scene Geometry under Wavy Fluid via Distortion and Defocus Analysis
799 Intrinsic Image Decomposition using Structure-Texture Separation and Surface Normals
1085 Surface Normal Deconvolution: Photometric Stereo for Optically Thick Translucent Objects
1093 What Motion Cues Reveal About Unknown Shape and Reflectance
1107 Spectra Estimation of Fluorescent and Reflective Scenes by Using Ordinary Illuminants
1133 Intrinsic Face Image Decomposition with Human Face Priors
1209 Intrinsic Textures for Relightable Free-Viewpoint Video
Recognition: detection, categorization, indexing, matching 16 Binary Codes Embedding for Fast Image Tagging with Incomplete Labels
26 Recognizing Products: An Efficient, Per-Exemplar Multi-Label Image Classification Approach
29 Parameterizing Object Detectors in the Continuous Pose Space
32 Sliding Shapes for 3D Object Detection in RGB-D Images
33 PanoContext: A Whole-room 3D Context Model for Panoramic Scene Understanding
45 A Contour Completion Model for Augmenting Surface Reconstructions
66 Spatial Pyramid Pooling on Deep Convolutional Features for Visual Recognition
68 Learning Graphs to Model Visual Objects Across Different Depictive Styles
90 Towards Unied Object Detection and Segmentation
107 SPADE: Scalar Product Accelerator by Integer Decomposition for Object Detection
131 Part-Pair Representation for Part Localization
142 Pipelining Localized Semantic Features for Fine-Grained Action Recognition
146 From Low-Cost Depth Sensors to CAD: Cross-Domain 3D Shape Retrieval via Regression Tree Fields
162 Multi-Class Open Set Recognition using Probability of Inclusion
167 Fine Pose Estimation: When CAD models meet images
172 Architectural Style Classification using Multinomial Latent Logistic Regression
190 Free-Shape Polygonal Object Localization
256 Recognizing City Identity Via Attribute Analysis of Geo-tagged Images
264 Progressive mode-seeking on graphs for sparse feature matching
271 Graph Cuts for Supervised Binary Coding
333 Reasoning About Object Affordances in a Knowledge Base Representation
337 Simultaneous Localization and Detection
357 Interactively Guiding Semi-Supervised Clustering via Attribute-based Explanations
372 Growing Regression Forests by Classification: Applications to Object Pose Estimation
401 Object Detection and Segmentation using Semantically Rich Image and Depth Features
402 OTC: A Novel Local Descriptor for Scene Classification
403 Food-101 – Mining Discriminative Components with Random Forests
406 Face detection without bells and whistles
411 Orientation covariant aggregation of local descriptors with embeddings
441 Attributes make sense on segmented objects
442 Human Pose Estimation with Fields of Parts
451 Image Retrieval and Ranking via Consistently Reconstructing Multi-Attribute Queries
467 Pose Machines: Articulated Pose Estimation via Inference Machines
471 Edge Boxes: Locating Object Proposals from Edges
477 Transductive Multi-view Embedding for Zero-Shot Recognition and Annotation
498 Common Objects in Context Dataset
560 Foreground Consistent Human Pose Estimation using Branch and Bound
571 Visualizing and Understanding Convolutional Networks
597 Towards Transparent Systems: Semantic Characterization of Failure Modes
606 Weakly Supervised Object Localization with Latent Category Learning
614 Object Detection and Viewpoint Estimation with Auto-masking Neural Network
626 Neural Codes for Image Retrieval
658 Zero-Shot Learning via Visual Abstraction
672 Fast and Accurate Texture Recognition with Multilayer Convolution and Multifractal Analysis
690 Multi-scale Orderless Pooling of Deep Convolutional Activation Features
700 Deep Features for Text Spotting
709 Interactive Object Counting
718 Improving Image-Sentence Embeddings Using Large Weakly Annotated Photo Collections
722 Detecting Snap Points in Egocentric Video with a Web Photo Prior
726 Sequential Max-Margin Event Detectors
727 Depth Based Object Detection from Partial Pose Estimation of Symmetric Objects
736 Learning to Rank 3D Features
747 CollageParsing: Nonparametric scene parsing by adaptive overlapping windows
752 Interestingness Prediction by Robust Learning to Rank
767 Verifying mid-level region correspondences through unsupervised context prediction
783 Which Looks Like Which: Exploring Inter-Class Relationships in Fine-Grained Visual Categorization
794 Learning to Hash with Partial Tags: Exploring Correlation Between Tags and Hashing Bits for Large Scale Image Retrieval
871 Predicting Actions from Static Scenes
886 Pairwise Probabilistic Voting: Instance Recognition without RANSAC
894 Training Deformable Object Models for Human Detection based on Alignment and Clustering
895 Human Detection using Learned Part Alphabet and Pose Dictionary
899 Latent-Class Hough Forests for 3D Object Detection and Pose Estimation
911 A Closer Look at Context: From Coxels to the Contextual Emergence of Object Saliency
930 Weakly Supervised Learning of Objects, Attributes and their Associations
982 Surface Normal Estimation as a Discriminative Soft-weighted Learning Problem
998 Discovering Groups of People in Images
999 Statistical and Spatial Consensus Collection for Detector Adaptation
1019 Knowing a good HOG filter when you see it: Efficient selection of filters for detection
1050 Superpixel Graph Label Transfer with Learned Distance Metric
1059 Instance Segmentation of Indoor Scenes using a Coverage Loss
1061 Deep Deformable Part Model with Shape Regression for Object Part Localization
1074 Recursive Convolutional Models for Fine-grained Categorization
1076 Similarity-invariant Sketch-based Image Retrieval in Large Databases
1156 Scene Classification via Hypergraph-based Semantic Attributes Subnetworks Identification
1180 Jointly Optimizing 3D Model Fitting and Fine-Grained Classification
1196 Discovering Object Classes from Activities
1213 Exploiting Privileged Information from Web Data for Image Cagegorization
1215 Multi-modal Unsupervised Feature Learning for RGB-D Scene Labeling
1248 Active Deformable Part Models
1249 Deep Learning of Scene-specific Classifier for Pedestrian Detection
1272 Strengthening the Effectiveness of Pedestrian Detection with Spatially Pooled Features
1294 Untangling object-view manifold for multi-view recognition
1332 Learning 6D Object Pose Estimation using 3D Object Coordinates
1355 Analyzing The Performance of Multi Layer Neural Networks for Object Recognition
1366 Salient Color Names for Person Re-Identification
1384 Uncertain Structure Matching for Geolocation
1393 Learning Discriminative and Shareable Features for Scene Classification
1406 Object Co-Detection via Efficient Inference in a Fully-Connected CRF
1408 Unsupervised Video Adaptation for Parsing Human Motion
1486 Learning High-level Judgments of Urban Perception
1493 Training object class detectors from eye tracking data
1501 30Hz Object Detection with DPM V5
1527 Integrating Context and Occlusion for Car Detection by Hierarchical And-Or Model
1528 Large-Scale Object Classification using Label Relation Graphs
1531 Self-Explanatory Sparse Representation for Image Classification
1534 The Elements of Fashion Styles
1572 Robust Instance Recognition in Presence of Occlusion and Clutter
1586 Robust Scene Text Detection with Convolution Neural Network Induced MSER Trees
1602 Multi-level Adaptive Active Learning for Scene Classication
Segmentation, grouping and shape representation 12 Geodesic Object Proposals
141 Learning Where To Classify In Multi-View Semantic Segmentation
288 On image contours of projective shapes
399 Surface Matching and Registration by Landmark Curve-Driven Canonical Quasiconformal Mapping
608 A Multi-Stage Approach to Curve Extraction
825 Precision-Recall-Classification Evaluation Framework: Application to Depth Estimation on Single Images
932 Closed-Form Training of Conditional Random Fields for Large Scale Image Segmentation
986 ShapeForest: Building constrained Statistical Shape Models with Decision Trees
1016 Finding Approximate Convex Shapes in RGBD Images
1072 Numerical Inversion of SRNFs for Efcient Elastic Shape Analysis of Star-Shaped Objects
1073 Geometry Driven Semantic Labeling of Indoor Scenes
1075 Non-Associative Higher-Order Markov Networks for Point Cloud Classification
1175 Stixmantics: A Medium-Level Model for Real-Time Semantic Scene Understanding
1307 A Novel Topic-level Random Walk Framework for Scene Image Co-Segmentation
1364 Sparse Dictionaries for Semantic Segmentation
1552 A Fast and Simple Algorithm for Producing Candidate Regions
1558 A Graph Theoretic Approach for Object Shape Representation in Compositional Hierarchies using a Hybrid Generative-Descriptive Model
Statistical methods and learning 177 Shrinkage Expansion Adaptive Metric Learning
231 Perceptually Inspired Layout-aware Losses for Image Segmentation
284 Support Vector Guided Dictionary Learning
384 Efficient k-Support Matrix Pursuit
422 From Manifold to Manifold: Geometry-Aware Dimensionality Reduction for SPD Matrices
485 Expanding the Family of Grassmannian Kernels: An Embedding Perspective
664 Geodesic Regression on the Grassmannian
689 Large Margin Local Metric Learning
786 Sparse Additive Subspace Clustering
820 Efficient Sparsity Estimation via Marginal-Lasso Coding
843 Continuous Conditional Neural Fields for Structured Regression
850 Optimizing Ranking Measures for Compact Binary Code Learning
1115 Image Tag Completion with Noise by Topic Model and Matrix Completion
1157 Optimizing Average Precision using High-Order Information
1237 Selecting Influential Examples: Active Learning with Expected Model Output Changes
1333 Exploiting Low-rank Structure from Latent Domains for Domain Generalization
1336 ConceptMap: Mining noisy web data for concept learning
1584 Model Selection by Linear Programming
Video: events, activities and surveillance 8 Semantic Aware Video Transcription Using Random Forest Classifiers
41 Weakly supervised action labeling in videos under ordering constraints
55 HiRF: Hierarchical Random Field for Collective Activity Recognition in Videos
73 Spatio-Temporal Object Detection Proposals
76 Joint Person Naming in Videos and Text
81 Part Bricolage: Flow-assisted Part-based Parametrized Graphs for Activity Classification and Detection
184 Assessing the Quality of Actions
196 Person Re-Identification by Video Ranking
204 Video Object Discovery and Co-segmentation with Extremely Weak Supervision
263 A Discriminative Model with Multiple Temporal Scales for Action Prediction
378 Discovering Video Clusters from Visual Features and Noisy Tags
458 Creating Summaries from User Videos
481 Pose Filter based Hidden-CRF models for Activity Detection
487 Continuous Learning of Human Activity Models using Deep Nets
489 HOPC: Histogram of Oriented Principal Components of 3D Pointclouds for Cross-View Action Recognition
514 Supervoxel-Consistent Foreground Propagation in Video
611 Clustering with Hypergraphs: The Case for Large Hyperedges
665 Finding Coherent Motions and Semantic Regions in Crowd Scenes: A Diffusion and Clustering Approach
735 Movement Pattern Histogram for Action Recognition and Retrieval in Static Videos
742 Ranking Domain-specific Highlights by Analyzing Edited Videos
743 Salient Montages from Unconstrained Videos
751 Motion Words for Videos
775 Recognizing Complex Events in Videos by Learning Key Static-Dynamic Evidences
870 DaMN Discriminative and Mutually Nearest: Exploiting Pairwise Category Proximity for Video Action Recognition
883 Activity Group Localization by Modeling the Relations among Participants
978 Action Recognition Using Super Sparse Coding Vector with Spatio-Temporal Awareness
1011 Learning Visual Clauses for Zero-shot Video Search
1013 Natural action recognition using invariant 3D motion encoding
1020 Learning Latent Constituents for Recognition of Group Activities in Video
1096 Detecting Social Actions of Fruit Flies
1121 Robust Foreground Detection Using Smoothness and Arbitrariness Constraints
1153 Category-specific video summarization
1204 A Hierarchical Representation for Future Action Prediction
1280 Spatiotemporal Background Subtraction Using Minimum Spanning Tree and Optical Flow
1349 Action-Reaction: Forecasting the Dynamics of Human Interaction
1360 Video Action Detection with Relational Dynamic-Poselets
1361 Seeing is Worse than Believing: Reading People’s Minds Better than Computer-Vision Methods Recognize Actions
1372 A Multi-Transformational Model for Background Subtraction with Moving Cameras
1386 Video Object Co-Segmentation by Regulated Maximum Weight Cliques
1431 Accelerated High-Order Super Vectors for Visual Recognition
1438 Action Recognition with Stacked Fisher Vectors
Vision for X 868 GIS-assisted Object Detection and geospatial localization
901 Context-based Pedestrian Path Prediction
990 Active Random Forests: An application to Autonomous Unfolding of Clothes
1167 Model-Free Segmentation and Grasp Selection of Unknown Stacked Objects